S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 15, 2017

Registration No. 333–            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   04-3210530

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

One Kendall Square, Suite B7201

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 441-1000

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D.

President and Chief Executive Officer

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

One Kendall Square, Suite B7201

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 441-1000

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Brian A. Johnson, Esq.

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

60 State Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(617) 526-6000

 

Jeffrey A. Munsie, Esq.

General Counsel

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

One Kendall Square, Suite B7201

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 441-1000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company       

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 

Amount

to be

Registered (1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit (1)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

  Amount of
Registration Fee

Debt Securities

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Preferred Stock

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Depositary Shares (2)

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Purchase Contracts

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Purchase Units

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Warrants

  (3)   (3)   (3)   (3)

Total

          $150,000,000 (4)   $18,675 (5)

 

 

(1) An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder or that are represented by depositary shares as shall have aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.
(2) Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent an interest in a fractional share or multiple shares of preferred stock and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.
(3) Not required to be specified in accordance with General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3.
(4) Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(5) Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant hereby offsets the total registration fee due hereunder by $18,675, which represents a portion of the registration fee previously paid with respect to $200,000,000 of unsold securities (the “Unsold Securities”) previously registered on the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-194312) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 4, 2014 and declared effective on April 2, 2014 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the offering of the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement shall be deemed terminated as of the date of the filing of this registration statement.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

    a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $150,000,000 of the Registrant’s debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units and/or warrants; and

 

    a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $40,000,000 of the Registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the base prospectus.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated December 15, 2017

$150,000,000

PROSPECTUS

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Purchase Contracts

Purchase Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MACK.”

 

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is             , 2017.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

THE COMPANY

     5  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     21  

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS AND PURCHASE UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus.

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “Merrimack,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, including the risk factors in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended September 30, 2017, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.merrimack.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s website.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-35409) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

  Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed on March 1, 2017, and amended by Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A, filed on May 1, 2017;

 

  Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2017, June 30, 2017 and September 30, 2017, filed on May 10, 2017, August 9, 2017 and November 8, 2017, respectively;

 

  Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 9, 2017, January 20, 2017, February 2, 2017, February 7, 2017, March 30, 2017, April 5, 2017, April 7, 2017, May 25, 2017, June 16, 2017, July 14, 2017, August 14, 2017, September 6, 2017, September 15, 2017, October 10, 2017, October 13, 2017, November 13, 2017, November 30, 2017 and December 15, 2017; and

 

  The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on January 27, 2012, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

One Kendall Square, Suite B7201

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 441-1000

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. In addition, any statements that refer to our plans to develop and commercialize our clinical stage product candidates and diagnostics; our ongoing and planned discovery programs, preclinical studies and clinical trials; the timing of the completion of our clinical trials and the availability of results from such trials; our ability to establish and maintain collaborations for our product candidates; our receipt of payments related to the milestone events under the asset purchase and sale agreement with Ipsen S.A. or under the license and collaboration agreement between Baxalta Incorporated, Baxalta US Inc., Baxalta GmbH and Ipsen S.A., when expected or at all; the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates; the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our products; our intellectual property position; our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy; the potential advantages of our systems biology approach to drug research and development; the potential use of our systems biology approach in fields other than oncology; the outcome of litigation against us; and our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing are forward-looking statements.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. See “Risk Factors” for more information. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments that we may make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts that is outthinking cancer to ensure that patients and their families live fulfilling lives. Our mission is to transform cancer care through the smart design and development of targeted solutions based on a deep understanding of cancer pathways and biological markers. All of our development programs, including four clinical studies in distinct indications and six candidates in preclinical development, fit into our strategy of (1) understanding the biological problems we are trying to solve, (2) designing specific solutions and (3) developing those solutions for biomarker-selected patients. This three-pronged strategy seeks to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Our principal executive offices are located at One Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 441-1000.

 

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CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods indicated. You should read this table in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

    

Nine Months

Ended

   Fiscal Year Ended
     September 30
2017
   December 31,
2016
   December 31,
2015
   December 31,
2014
   December 31,
2013
   December 31,
2012

Consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges

   N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A    N/A

For purposes of calculating the consolidated ratios of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of net loss before income taxes and before adjustment for the net loss attributable to non-controlling interest plus fixed charges. Fixed charges include interest expense on indebtedness and an estimate of the interest expense within rental expense.

Our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges by $96.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, $169.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, $162.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, $47.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, $97.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 and $66.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.

Our ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods indicated above are the same as our ratios of earnings to fixed charges set forth above.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, the acquisition or licensing of other products, businesses or technologies, repayment and refinancing of debt, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term, investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

  the title and type of the debt securities;

 

  whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture, the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

  the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

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  the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

  the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

  the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

  the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

  the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

  the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

  provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

  any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

  the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

  any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

  whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

  any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

  whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

  whether the series of debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

  any special tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

  any other material terms of the debt securities.

The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

 

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Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

  the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

  the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

  immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

  certain other conditions are met.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

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Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

  failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

  failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

  default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

  certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

  any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto. For information as to the waiver of defaults, see “—Modification and Waiver.”

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to

 

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follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

  the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

  the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

  the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

  the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

  during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of senior debt securities if:

 

  we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

  all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the senior debt securities would be treated as though we took back your senior debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and senior debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the senior debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the senior debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of senior debt securities issued under the indentures.

 

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Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the senior debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

  We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

  There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the senior debt securities would be treated as though we took back your senior debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and senior debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the senior debt securities you give back to us.

 

  We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the senior debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the senior debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

  We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

  We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the senior debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

  to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

  to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

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  to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

  to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

  to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

  to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

  to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

  to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

  to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

  to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

  extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

  reduces the principal amount of on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

  reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

  reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

  changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

  reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

  waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

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  changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

  modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

  reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or to modify or amend or to waive certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or the Trust Indenture Act, incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

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Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

  all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

  all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

  all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

  all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

  all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. This summary is not complete. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 20,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of December 1, 2017, 13,338,857 shares of common stock were outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. Each election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. In general, except (1) for the election of directors, (2) as described below under “—Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects—Super-Majority Voting,” (3) in the future to the extent that we have two or more classes or series of stock outstanding with separate voting rights and (4) as otherwise required by law, any matter to be voted on by our stockholders at any meeting is decided by the vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the holders of shares of our stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter.

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

Liquidation and Dissolution. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any of our outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.

Nasdaq Global Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MACK.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Currently, we have no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

 

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If we decide to issue any preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe in a prospectus supplement the specific terms of the preferred stock, including, if applicable, the following:

 

  the title and stated value;

 

  the number of shares we are offering;

 

  the liquidation preference per share;

 

  the purchase price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

  the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;

 

  whether dividends will be cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

  the relative ranking and preference of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

  the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

 

  the provisions for a sinking fund;

 

  the provisions for redemption or repurchase and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

  the listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

  whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock and, if convertible, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

  whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities and, if exchangeable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

  voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

  preemptive rights;

 

  restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

  whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

  a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

  any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

The preferred stock could have other rights, including economic rights that are senior to our common stock that could adversely affect the market value of our common stock. The issuance of the preferred stock may also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us without any action by the shareholders.

 

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Effects of Authorized but Unissued Stock

We have shares of common stock and preferred stock available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of The Nasdaq Global Market. We may utilize these additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including for future public offerings to raise additional capital or facilitate corporate acquisitions or for payment as a dividend on our capital stock. The existence of unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management or to issue preferred stock with terms that could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a controlling interest in our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. In addition, if we issue preferred stock, the issuance could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders; Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before such meeting and may not be taken by written action in lieu of a meeting. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors. In addition, our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors, or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities. These provisions also could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our common stock, because even if it acquired a majority of our outstanding voting stock, it would be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting and not by written consent.

Super-Majority Voting. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above.

 

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Directors’ Liability

Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law and provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

 

  for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

  for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

  for voting or assenting to unlawful payments of dividends, stock repurchases or other distributions; or

 

  for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act, omission or claim that occurred or arose prior to such amendment or repeal. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to very limited exceptions.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify each such director or executive officer, as applicable, for some expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by him in any action or proceeding arising out of his service as one of our directors or executive officers, as applicable.

Certain of our non-employee directors may, through their relationships with their employers, be insured or indemnified against certain liabilities incurred in their capacity as members of our board of directors.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, which we call depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not complete. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

Dividends and Other Distributions

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.

If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

Liquidation Preference

If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Withdrawal of Stock

Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver

 

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fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

Voting the Preferred Stock

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.

Charges of Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the

 

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amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

 

  all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

  there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

Notices

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.

Limitation of Liability

Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS AND PURCHASE UNITS

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from or sell to us, and obligating us to sell to or purchase from the holders, a specified number of shares of our common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares at a future date or dates, which we refer to in this prospectus as purchase contracts. The price per share of common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares and the number of shares of each may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of units, often known as purchase units, consisting of one or more purchase contracts and beneficial interests in debt securities or any other securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or any combination of the foregoing, securing the holders’ obligations to purchase the common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares under the purchase contracts.

The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders of the purchase units or vice versa, and these payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations under those contracts in a specified manner, including pledging their interest in another purchase contract.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the purchase contracts and purchase units, including, if applicable, collateral or depositary arrangements.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares, or any combination of those securities, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

  the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

  the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

  whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities;

 

  whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms;

 

  any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

  the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

  the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

  the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

  the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

  if applicable, the designation and terms of the debt securities, preferred stock or depositary shares with which the warrants are issued and, the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

  the number of shares of common stock, the number of shares of preferred stock or the number of depositary shares purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

  if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

  information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

  the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

  any redemption or call provisions; and

 

  any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, depositary share, purchase contract, purchase unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Registered Global Securities

We may issue the registered debt securities, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, warrant agreement or purchase unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry

 

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practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to depositary shares, warrants, purchase agreements or purchase units, represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of us, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents or any other agent of ours, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents or unit agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

  to or through underwriters, brokers or dealers;

 

  through agents;

 

  directly to one or more other purchasers in negotiated sales or competitively bid transactions;

 

  through a block trade in which the broker or dealer engaged to handle the block trade will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; or

 

  through a combination of any of the above methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

  at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

  at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

  at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

  at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

  the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

  the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

  any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

  all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

  any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

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  any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

  the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

  if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

 

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Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus by reference to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated December 15, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

$150,000,000

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Purchase Contracts

Purchase Units

Warrants

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

            , 2017

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated December 15, 2017

Prospectus

$40,000,000

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, dated December 15, 2017, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 from time to time through Cowen, acting as our agent.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Global Market, the existing trading market for our common stock, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices, and/or any other method permitted by law. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Cowen will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3% of the gross sales price of the shares sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-11 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cowen. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Market under the trading symbol “MACK”. On December 13, 2017, the last sale price of our common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market was $10.35 per share.

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-3 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Cowen

            , 2017


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     SA-ii  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     SA-iii  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     SA-1  

THE OFFERING

     SA-2  

RISK FACTORS

     SA-3  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     SA-5  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     SA-6  

DILUTION

     SA-7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     SA-8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     SA-11  

LEGAL MATTERS

     SA-12  

EXPERTS

     SA-12  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     SA-12  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     SA-12  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We and Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “Merrimack,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. In addition, any statements that refer to our plans to develop and commercialize our clinical stage product candidates and diagnostics; our ongoing and planned discovery programs, preclinical studies and clinical trials; the timing of the completion of our clinical trials and the availability of results from such trials; our ability to establish and maintain collaborations for our product candidates; our receipt of payments related to the milestone events under the asset purchase and sale agreement with Ipsen S.A. or under the license and collaboration agreement between Baxalta Incorporated, Baxalta US Inc., Baxalta GmbH and Ipsen S.A., when expected or at all; the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates; the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our products; our intellectual property position; our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy; the potential advantages of our systems biology approach to drug research and development; the potential use of our systems biology approach in fields other than oncology; the outcome of litigation against us; and our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing; and the use of proceeds from this offering are forward-looking statements.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. See the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for more information. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments that we may make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-3 of this prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Our Business

We are a biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts that is outthinking cancer to ensure that patients and their families live fulfilling lives. Our mission is to transform cancer care through the smart design and development of targeted solutions based on a deep understanding of cancer pathways and biological markers. All of our development programs, including four clinical studies in distinct indications and six candidates in preclinical development, fit into our strategy of (1) understanding the biological problems we are trying to solve, (2) designing specific solutions and (3) developing those solutions for biomarker-selected patients. This three-pronged strategy seeks to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1993 under the name Immtek, Inc. We changed our name to Atlantic BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. in 1995. In 2001, we acquired Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and changed our name to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In October 2010, we reincorporated in the State of Delaware. As a result, we are now a Delaware corporation with the name Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at One Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and our telephone number is (617) 441-1000. Our website address is www.merrimack.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock Offered by Us    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000.
Manner of Offering    “At the market” offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Use of Proceeds    We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our other cash resources, to fund the advancement and clinical development of our clinical stage product candidates and our other preclinical and research and development efforts, and the balance, if any, will be used for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors    You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Market Symbol    MACK

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. In deciding whether to invest, and in consultation with your own financial and legal advisors, you should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information contained in this prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and cause the value of our stock to decline, which could cause you to lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations.

Risks Related to This Offering

Future sales of shares of our common stock, including by us or our directors and executive officers or shares issued upon the exercise of currently outstanding options, could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

A substantial portion of our outstanding common stock can be traded without restriction at any time. In addition, a portion of our outstanding common stock is currently restricted as a result of federal securities laws, but can be sold at any time subject to applicable volume limitations. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, by us or others, could reduce the market price of our common stock. In addition, we have a significant number of shares that are subject to outstanding options. The exercise of these options and the subsequent sale of the underlying common stock could cause a further decline in our stock price. These sales also might make it difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. We cannot predict the size of future issuances or the effect, if any, that this offering or any future issuances may have on the market price for our common stock.

Our management may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways which may not yield a significant return, if any.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. You may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend these net proceeds. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or market value. Until the net proceeds are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce significant income or investments that lose value.

In addition, the issuance from time to time of shares of our common stock in this offering, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

Purchasers will experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock purchased in the offering.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. After giving effect to the sale of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $40,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $10.35 per share, the last sale price of our common stock on December 13, 2017 on The Nasdaq Global Market, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2017 would have been approximately $150.4 million or approximately $8.78 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $0.37 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $1.57 per share to purchasers of our common stock in this offering.

 

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In addition to this offering, subject to market conditions and other factors, we may pursue additional equity financings in the future, including future public offerings or future private placements of equity securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities. Further, the exercise of outstanding options could result in further dilution to investors and any additional shares issued in connection with acquisitions will result in dilution to investors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could fall as a result of resales of any of these shares of common stock due to an increased number of shares available for sale in the market.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $40,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our other cash resources, to fund the advancement and clinical development of our clinical stage product candidates and our other preclinical and research and development efforts. The balance, if any, will be used to fund capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes, which may include research and development costs, the acquisition or licensing of other products, businesses or technologies, and repayment and refinancing of debt.

We have not determined the exact amounts we plan to spend on any of the items listed above or the timing of these expenditures. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the actual net proceeds from this offering, the progress of our development and commercialization efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates, and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We have no current understandings, agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or licenses of any products, businesses or technologies.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have not historically declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. Although our board of directors declared a special cash dividend of $140.0 million in connection with the sale of our commercial business to Ipsen S.A., which dividend was payable on May 26, 2017 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on May 17, 2017, we currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay regular cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2017 was $111.6 million, or $8.41 per share of our common stock, based on approximately 13,274,000 shares of our common stock then outstanding. After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $40.0 million at an assumed public offering price of $10.35 per share (the last sale price of our common stock on December 13, 2017 as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market), less the estimated commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value at September 30, 2017 would have been $150.4 million, or $8.78 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.37 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $1.57 per share to investors in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 10.35  

Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2017

   $ 8.41     

Increase per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

   $ 0.37     

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

        8.78  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors

      $ 1.57  
     

 

 

 

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. This summary is not complete. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 20,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of December 1, 2017, 13,338,857 shares of common stock were outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. Each election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. In general, except (1) for the election of directors, (2) as described below under “—Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects—Super-Majority Voting,” (3) in the future to the extent that we have two or more classes or series of stock outstanding with separate voting rights and (4) as otherwise required by law, any matter to be voted on by our stockholders at any meeting is decided by the vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the holders of shares of our stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter.

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

Liquidation and Dissolution. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any of our outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.

Nasdaq Global Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MACK.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Currently, we have no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

 

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Effects of Authorized but Unissued Stock

We have shares of common stock and preferred stock available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of The Nasdaq Global Market. We may utilize these additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including for future public offerings to raise additional capital or facilitate corporate acquisitions or for payment as a dividend on our capital stock. The existence of unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management or to issue preferred stock with terms that could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a controlling interest in our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. In addition, if we issue preferred stock, the issuance could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders; Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before such meeting and may not be taken by written action in lieu of a meeting. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors. In addition, our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors, or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities. These provisions also could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our common stock, because even if it acquired a majority of our outstanding voting stock, it would be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting and not by written consent.

Super-Majority Voting. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above.

 

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Directors’ Liability

Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law and provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

 

    for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

    for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

    for voting or assenting to unlawful payments of dividends, stock repurchases or other distributions; or

 

    for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act, omission or claim that occurred or arose prior to such amendment or repeal. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to very limited exceptions.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify each such director or executive officer, as applicable, for some expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by him in any action or proceeding arising out of his service as one of our directors or executive officers, as applicable.

Certain of our non-employee directors may, through their relationships with their employers, be insured or indemnified against certain liabilities incurred in their capacity as members of our board of directors.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $40,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Global Market or any other trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $50,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $125,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “MACK.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus by reference to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated December 15, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.merrimack.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s website.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-35409) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

    Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed on March 1, 2017, and amended by Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A, filed on May 1, 2017;

 

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    Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2017, June 30, 2017 and September 30, 2017, filed on May 10, 2017, August 9, 2017 and November 8, 2017, respectively;

 

    Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 9, 2017, January 20, 2017, February 2, 2017, February 7, 2017, March 30, 2017, April 5, 2017, April 7, 2017, May 25, 2017, June 16, 2017, July 14, 2017, August 14, 2017, September 6, 2017, September 15, 2017, October 10, 2017, October 13, 2017, November 13, 2017, November 30, 2017 and December 15, 2017; and

 

    The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on January 27, 2012, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

One Kendall Square, Suite B7201

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

(617) 441-1000

 

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$40,000,000

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

Prospectus

 

 

Cowen

 

 

            , 2017

 

 

 


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PART II.

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.*

Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 18,675  

Printing and engraving

     (1

Accounting services

     (1

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

     (1

Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depository’s fees and expenses

     (1

Miscellaneous

     (1
  

 

 

 

Total

     (1

 

(1) These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and distributions of the offered securities and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 102 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of its directors or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his or her duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation provides that no director shall be personally liable to it or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation and certain other persons serving at the request of the corporation in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he or she is or is threatened to be made a party by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnify for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation provides that it will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, the Registrant’s director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an “Indemnitee”), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all

 

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expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant’s best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation also provides that the Registrant will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of the Registrant to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, the Registrant’s director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee or, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant’s best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Registrant, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by the Registrant against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her or on his or her behalf in connection therewith. If the Registrant does not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

The Registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and executive officers. In general, these agreements provide that the Registrant will indemnify the director or executive officer to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in his or her capacity as a director or officer of the Registrant or in connection with their service at the Registrant’s request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that a director or executive officer makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the director or executive officer.

The Registrant maintains a general liability insurance policy which covers certain liabilities of its directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

The exhibits to this Registration Statement are listed in the exhibit index, which appears elsewhere herein and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (a)(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”);

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered

 

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  would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

  (2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i) each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii) each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference in the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration

 

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  statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

  (v) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

  (vi) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (d) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (e) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
No.

  

Description

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  1.2    Sales Agreement, dated as of December 15, 2017, by and among the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC
  2.1    Asset Purchase and Sale Agreement, dated as of January  7, 2017, by and between the Registrant and Ipsen S.A. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 9, 2017)
  3.1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant, as amended (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on November 8, 2017)
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.5 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended, filed on January 13, 2012)
  4.1    Form of Senior Indenture
  4.2    Form of Subordinated Indenture
  4.3    Form of Senior Note
  4.4    Form of Subordinated Note
  4.5*    Form of Deposit Agreement
  4.6*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  4.7*    Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
  4.8*    Form of Unit Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
12.1    Calculation of Consolidated Ratios of Earnings to Fixed Charges
21.1    List of Subsidiaries
23.1    Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Registrant
23.2    Consent of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1    Powers of Attorney (included on the signature pages to the Registration Statement)
25.1**    The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2**    The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

* To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.
** To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Cambridge, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on this 15th day of December, 2017.

 

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D.

  Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D.
  President and Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY AND SIGNATURES

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D. and Jean M. Franchi, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D.

Richard Peters, M.D., Ph.D.

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  December 15, 2017

/s/ Jean M. Franchi

Jean M. Franchi

  

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  December 15, 2017

/s/ Gary L. Crocker

Gary L. Crocker

   Chairman of the Board   December 15, 2017

/s/ George D. Demetri, M.D.

George D. Demetri, M.D.

   Director   December 15, 2017

/s/ John M. Dineen

John M. Dineen

   Director   December 15, 2017

 

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Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Vivian S. Lee, M.D., Ph.D.

Vivian S. Lee, M.D., Ph.D.

   Director   December 15, 2017

/s/ Ulrik B. Nielsen, Ph.D.

Ulrik B. Nielsen, Ph.D.

   Director   December 15, 2017

/s/ Michael E. Porter, Ph.D.

Michael E. Porter, Ph.D.

   Director   December 15, 2017

/s/ James H. Quigley

James H. Quigley

   Director   December 15, 2017

/s/ Russell T. Ray

Russell T. Ray

   Director   December 15, 2017

 

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EX-1.2

EXHIBIT 1.2

Execution Version

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

$40,000,000 of shares of Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

Sales Agreement

December 15, 2017

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

1.    Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) being filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

The Company has filed, or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and a sales agreement prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares, which also incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has furnished, or will furnish, to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the sales agreement prospectus included as part of such registration statement relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company pursuant to this Agreement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it first becomes or became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The sales agreement prospectus relating to the Placement Shares, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by any prospectus supplement, in the form in which such sales agreement prospectus and/or any prospectus supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the

 

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Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or any successor thereto (“EDGAR”).

2.    Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the applicable number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended in writing from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the applicable number of Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3.     Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market (the “Nasdaq Market”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in such Placement Notice, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of

 

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such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through the Nasdaq Market, on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

4.    Suspension of Sales.

(a)    The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

(b)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and Cowen agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

(c)    If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

5.    Settlement.

(a)    Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof and as set forth on

 

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Schedule 3 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 12 hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b)    Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, then the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable documented expense (including reasonable documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled pursuant to Schedule 3 absent such default.

6.    Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen, unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise, that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 16(d)):

(a)    Registration Statement and Prospectus. The initial effective date of the Registration Statement under the Securities Act is not or will not be earlier than three years prior to the date hereof; such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, shall have become effective under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice by the Company; and no notice of objection of the Commission to the use of such registration statement or any post-effective amendment thereto pursuant to Rule 401(g)(2) under the Securities Act has been received by the Company. No order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued by the Commission, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no proceeding for that purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Securities Act against the Company or related to the offering of the Placement Shares has been initiated or threatened by the Commission; as of the applicable effective date of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, the Registration Statement and any such post-effective amendment complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act, and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and as of the date of the Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto and as of each of the Settlement Dates, as the case may be, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation and warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by Cowen consists of the Agent’s Information (as defined in Section 16(e)). The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

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(b)    Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested.

(c)    Not an Ineligible Issuer. At the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the earliest time thereafter that the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the Securities Act) of the Placement Shares and at the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

(d)    Distribution of Offering Materials by the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented.

(e)    Authorization of the Placement Shares. The Placement Shares to be sold by Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal for the Company, have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement and paid for as provided herein, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(f)    The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

(g)    Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) has not prepared, used, authorized, approved or referred to and will not prepare, use, authorize, approve or refer to any “written communication” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy the Placement Shares (each such communication by the Company or its agents and representatives (other than a communication referred to in clause (i) below) an “Issuer Free Writing Prospectus”) other than (i) any document not constituting a prospectus pursuant to Section 2(a)(10)(a) of the Securities Act or Rule 134 under the Securities Act or (ii) the documents listed on Annex B hereto, each electronic road show and any other written communications approved in writing in advance by Cowen. Each such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus complied in all material respects with the Securities Act, has been or will be (within the time period specified in Rule 433) filed in accordance with the Securities Act (to the extent required thereby) and, when taken together with the Prospectus accompanying, or delivered prior to delivery of, such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, did not, and as of the applicable Settlement Date, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided that the Company makes no representation and warranty with respect to any statements or omissions made in each such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Prospectus in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use in such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Prospectus, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by Cowen consists of the Agent’s Information.

 

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(h)    Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, when they were filed with the Commission conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act, and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and any further document so filed and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(i)    Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except as otherwise disclosed therein and, in the case of unaudited, interim financial statements, subject to normal year-end audit adjustments and the exclusion of certain footnotes, and any supporting schedules included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement present fairly the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and presents fairly the information shown thereby.

(j)    No Material Adverse Change. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any material change in short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole and that is either from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each of the foregoing clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented.

(k)    Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each

 

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jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not, as of the date of this Agreement, own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than Merrimack Pharmaceuticals UK Limited.

(l)    Capitalization. All the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the authorized capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable (except, in the case of any foreign subsidiary, for directors’ qualifying shares) and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

(m)    Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) to the knowledge of the Company, each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Code (as defined below) so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and, to the knowledge of the Company (other than with respect to due execution and delivery by the Company), the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, applicable Exchange Act and all other laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including applicable rules of the Nasdaq Market and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company and, as applicable, disclosed in the Company’s filings with the Commission in accordance with the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its subsidiaries or their results of operations or prospects.

 

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(n)    Due Authorization. The Company has full right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder; and all action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of this Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby has been duly and validly taken.

(o)    Descriptions of the Sales Agreement. This Agreement conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(p)    No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(q)    No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(r)    No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, license, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except for the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as have already been obtained or made or as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) or the Nasdaq Market or under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen.

(s)    Legal Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, suits or proceedings pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject that, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; to the knowledge of the Company, no such investigations, actions, suits or proceedings are threatened or contemplated by any

 

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governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(t)    Independent Accountants. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

(u)    Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, the Company and its subsidiaries have good title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property and assets that are material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(v)    Title to Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, the Company and its subsidiaries own or possess adequate rights to all patents, patent applications, trademarks, service marks, trade names, trademark registrations and applications, service mark registrations and applications, domain names, goodwill associated with the foregoing, copyrights, licenses and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses in all material respects as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted, and, to the knowledge of the Company, the conduct of their respective businesses does not and will not infringe, constitute a misappropriation of, or otherwise violate in any material respect any such valid and enforceable rights of others. The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any written notice of any claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any such rights of others or any written notice challenging the validity, scope or enforceability of their respective patents or rights therein, in each case, which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is not aware of any specific facts or combination of facts that cause the Company to reasonably conclude that any of the material issued or granted patents owned by or licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries is invalid or unenforceable and, to the knowledge of the Company, all such issued or granted patents are valid and enforceable.

(w)    No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

(x)    Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, immediately after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

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(y)    Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date hereof and all such returns are true and complete in all material respects. The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all taxes shown as due on such returns, except for taxes being contested in good faith and for which adequate reserves have been taken, and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or would reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, in each case, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect.

(z)    Licenses and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, as then amended or supplemented, the Company and its subsidiaries (i) are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company or its subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), except where such noncompliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (ii) have not received any U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (x) any Applicable Laws or (y) any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws.

(aa)    No Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect.

(bb)    Compliance with and Liability under Environmental Laws. (i) The Company and its subsidiaries (a) are, and at all prior times were, in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and the common law relating to pollution or the protection of the environment, natural resources or human health or safety, including those relating to the generation, storage, treatment, use, handling, transportation, Release (as hereinafter defined) or threat of Release of Hazardous Materials (as hereinafter defined) (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (b) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to

 

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conduct their respective businesses, (c) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any Release or threat of Release of Hazardous Materials, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, (d) are not conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation or other corrective action pursuant to any Environmental Law at any location, and (e) are not a party to any order, decree or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Environmental Law, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, (a) there are no proceedings that are pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceedings regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (b) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws, including the Release or threat of Release of Hazardous Materials, that would reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company and its subsidiaries, and (c) none of the Company and its subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

(cc)    Hazardous Materials. There has been no storage, generation, transportation, use, handling, treatment, Release or threat of Release of Hazardous Materials by, relating to or caused by the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or, to the knowledge of the Company and its subsidiaries, any other entity (including any predecessor) for whose acts or omissions the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or would reasonably be expected to be liable) at, on, under or from any property or facility now or previously owned, operated or leased by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or at, on, under or from any other property or facility, in violation of any Environmental Laws or in a manner or amount or to a location that would reasonably be expected to result in any liability under any Environmental Law, except for any violation or liability which would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. “Hazardous Materials” means any material, chemical, substance, waste, pollutant, contaminant, compound, mixture, or constituent thereof, in any form or amount, including petroleum (including crude oil or any fraction thereof) and petroleum products, natural gas liquids, asbestos and asbestos containing materials, naturally occurring radioactive materials, brine, and drilling mud, regulated or which can give rise to liability under any Environmental Law. “Release” means any spilling, leaking, seepage, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, disposing, depositing, dispersing, or migrating in, into or through the environment, or in, into from or through any building or structure.

(dd)    Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any organization which is a member of a controlled group of corporations within the meaning of Section 414 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code, except for noncompliance that would not reasonably be expected to result in material liability to the Company or its subsidiaries; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption that would reasonably be expected to result in a material liability to the Company or its subsidiaries; (iii) for each

 

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Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, the minimum funding standard of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, as applicable, has been satisfied (without taking into account any waiver thereof or extension of any amortization period) and is reasonably expected to be satisfied in the future (without taking into account any waiver thereof or extension of any amortization period); (iv) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan that is required to be funded exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (v) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur that either has resulted, or would reasonably be expected to result, in material liability to the Company or its subsidiaries; (vi) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (the “PBGC”), in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan”, within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (vii) there is no pending audit or investigation by the Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, the PBGC or any other governmental agency or any foreign regulatory agency with respect to any Plan that would reasonably be expected to result in material liability to the Company or its subsidiaries. None of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (x) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its subsidiaries in the current fiscal year of the Company and its subsidiaries compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, other than an increase solely attributable to (A) an increase in the number of employees covered by such Plans or (B) an increase arising from the renewal in the ordinary course of business of contracts with vendors, insurers, plan administrators or other similar service providers under which the benefits of the Plans are provided; or (y) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards 106) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year.

(ee)    Disclosure Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company and its subsidiaries have carried out evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls and procedures as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

(ff)    Accounting Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, including, but not limited to, internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate

 

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action is taken with respect to any differences and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, there are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

(gg)    eXtensible Business Reporting Language. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(hh)    FINRA Matters. The Company was, at the time the Registration Statement was first filed with the Commission, and at all times thereafter has been, eligible to use Form S-3 pursuant to the standards for that form in effect immediately prior to October 21, 1992. There is a “bona fide public market” (as defined in FINRA Rule 5121) for the Common Stock.

(ii)    Insurance. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as the Company reasonably believes are adequate to protect the Company and its subsidiaries and their respective businesses; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that material capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

(jj)    No Unlawful Payments. None of the Company, its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any foreign or domestic government official or employee from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, and the rules and regulations thereunder, or any other applicable anti-corruption laws; or (iv) made any bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment. The Company and its subsidiaries have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have instituted and maintain appropriate policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws.

(kk)    Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any

 

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governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(ll)    Compliance with OFAC. None of the Company, its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject of any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), the U.S. Department of State, the European Union, the United Nations Security Council, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”); and the Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity, (i) for the purpose of financing or facilitating the activities of or business with any person or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding or facilitating, is the subject of Sanctions; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor, or otherwise) of Sanctions.

(mm)    No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

(nn)    No Broker’s Fees. None of the Company and its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

(oo)    No Registration Rights. No person has the right to require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register any securities for sale under the Securities Act by reason of the filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission or the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares.

(pp)    No Stabilization. The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to activities by Cowen, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Stock.

(qq)    Margin Rules. The application of the proceeds received by the Company from the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will not violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

(rr)    Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(ss)    Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

 

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(tt)    Clinical Trials. The clinical and pre-clinical trials conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company after due inquiry, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its subsidiaries have participated, that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospects, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company and all applicable statutes and all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which they are subject (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”) and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices; the descriptions in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus of the results of such studies and tests are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; the Company has no knowledge of any other trials not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company and its subsidiaries have operated at all times and are currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have received any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of any clinical or pre-clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such trials, and, to the Company’s best knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.

(uu)    Regulatory Filings. The Company has not failed to file with the Regulatory Authorities any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission with respect to the Company’s product candidates that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws when filed; and no deficiencies regarding compliance with applicable law have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions.

(vv)    Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no material failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

7.    Further Agreements of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

(a)    Required Filings. The Company will file any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to the extent required by Rule 433 under the Securities Act; will file promptly all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act subsequent to the date of the Prospectus and for so long as the delivery of a prospectus is required in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares and will furnish copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent

 

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not previously delivered) to Cowen in New York City as soon as practicable, and in any event no later than 10:00 A.M., New York City time, on the second business day succeeding the date of this Agreement, in such quantities as Cowen may reasonably request.

(b)    Delivery of Copies. The Company will deliver, without charge, (i) to Cowen, upon request, signed copies of the Registration Statement as originally filed and each amendment thereto, in each case including all exhibits and consents filed therewith; and (ii) during the Prospectus Delivery Period (as defined below), as many copies of the Prospectus (including all amendments and supplements thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus) as Cowen may reasonably request. As used herein, the term “Prospectus Delivery Period” means any period in which the Prospectus is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act).

(c)    Listing of Placement Shares. During any Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Nasdaq Market and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

(d)    Amendments or Supplements, Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses. Before preparing, using, authorizing, approving, referring to or filing any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and before filing any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments or supplements that do not name Cowen and do not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement), the Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel a copy of the proposed Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, amendment or supplement for review and will not prepare, use, authorize, approve, refer to or file any such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which Cowen reasonably objects.

(e)    Notice to Cowen. The Company will advise Cowen promptly, and confirm such advice in writing, (i) when any amendment to the Registration Statement has been filed or becomes effective (other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments that do not name Cowen and do not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement); (ii) when any supplement to the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or any amendment to the Prospectus has been filed (other than documents incorporated by reference); (iii) of any request by the Commission for any amendment to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or the receipt of any comments from the Commission relating to the Registration Statement or any other request by the Commission for any additional information; (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or preventing or suspending the use of any Prospectus, or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Securities Act; (v) of the occurrence of any event within the Prospectus Delivery Period as a result of which the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus or any such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading; and (vi) of the receipt by the Company of any notice with respect to any suspension of the qualification of the Common Stock for offer and sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; and the Company will use its best efforts to prevent the issuance of any such order suspending the effectiveness

 

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of the Registration Statement, preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus or suspending any such qualification of the Common Stock and, if any such order is issued, will use its reasonable best efforts to obtain as soon as possible the withdrawal thereof.

(f)    Ongoing Compliance. (1) If during the Prospectus Delivery Period (i) any event shall occur or condition shall exist as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading or (ii) it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with law, the Company will immediately notify Cowen thereof and forthwith prepare and, subject to paragraph (c) above, file with the Commission and furnish to Cowen such amendments or supplements to the Prospectus as may be necessary so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus will comply with law and (2) if at any time prior to the applicable Settlement Date (i) any event shall occur or condition shall exist as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading or (ii) it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with law, the Company will immediately notify Cowen thereof and forthwith prepare and, subject to paragraph (c) above, file with the Commission (to the extent required) and furnish to Cowen such amendments or supplements to the Prospectus as may be necessary so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not, in the light of the circumstances existing when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus will comply with law.

(g)    Blue Sky Compliance. The Company will qualify the Placement Shares for offer and sale under the securities or Blue Sky laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen shall reasonably request and will continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for distribution of the Placement Shares; provided that the Company shall not be required to (i) qualify as a foreign corporation or other entity or as a dealer in securities in any such jurisdiction where it would not otherwise be required to so qualify, (ii) file any general consent to service of process in any such jurisdiction or (iii) subject itself to taxation in any such jurisdiction if it is not otherwise so subject.

(h)    Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and Cowen as soon as practicable an earnings statement that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 of the Commission promulgated thereunder covering a period of at least twelve months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the “effective date” (as defined in Rule 158) of the Registration Statement.

(i)    Use of Proceeds. The Company will apply the Net Proceeds in all material respects as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the heading “Use of Proceeds”.

(j)    No Stabilization. The Company will not take, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to activities by Cowen, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Stock.

(k)    Reports. During a period of two years from the date hereof, the Company will furnish to Cowen, as soon as they are available, copies of all reports or other communications (financial or other) furnished to holders of the Common Stock, and copies of any reports and financial statements

 

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furnished to or filed with the Commission or any national securities exchange or automatic quotation system; provided the Company will be deemed to have furnished such reports and financial statements to Cowen to the extent they are filed on EDGAR.

(l)    Record Retention. The Company will, pursuant to reasonable procedures developed in good faith, retain copies of each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus that is not filed with the Commission in accordance with Rule 433 under the Securities Act.

(m)    Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for five (5) trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably practicable before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with (i) the issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance, (iv) the issuance or sale of any shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or (v) the issuance of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Placement Shares hereby.

(n)    Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

(o)    Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

(p)    Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through Cowen, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(q)    Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time the Company subsequently thereafter (i) amends or supplements the Registration Statement

 

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(other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) or the Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(p) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Annex A-3 within two (2) Trading Days of any Representation Date if requested by Cowen (but in the case of clause (iv) of this Section 7(q), only if Cowen reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material). The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(q) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(q), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Annex A-3, dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(r)    Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within two (2) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Annex A-3 for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Annex A-1 and Annex A-2, respectively, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, the Company shall be required to furnish to Cowen no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(r) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(s)    Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within two (2) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Annex A-3 for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen a letter (the “Comfort Letter”), dated the date on which the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) containing statements and information of the type customarily included in accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (ii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

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8.    Conditions of Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)    Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued to Cowen and not yet sold by Cowen and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

(b)    No Downgrade. At the Applicable Time, if there are any debt securities or preferred stock of, or guaranteed by, the Company or any of its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization,” as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act, (i) no downgrading shall have occurred in the rating accorded any such debt securities or preferred stock and (ii) no such organization shall have publicly announced that it has under surveillance or review, or has changed its outlook with respect to, its rating of any such debt securities or preferred stock (other than an announcement with positive implications of a possible upgrading).

(c)    Material Changes. No event or condition of a type described in Section 6(j) hereof, or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, shall have occurred or shall exist, which event or condition is not described in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, and the effect of which in the reasonable judgment of Cowen is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering, sale or delivery of the Placement Shares on any applicable Settlement Date on the terms and in the manner contemplated by this Agreement and the Prospectus.

(d)    Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(q) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(q).

(e)    Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(s) on or before the date on which delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(s).

(f)    Opinion and 10b-5 Statement of Counsel for the Company. Cowen shall have received the opinion of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(r) on or before the date on which delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(r).

(g)    Opinion and 10b-5 Statement of Counsel for Cowen. Cowen shall have received on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(r), an opinion and 10b-5 statement of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel for Cowen, with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably request, and the Company shall have furnished (or caused to be furnished) to such counsel such documents and information as such counsel may reasonably request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

(h)    Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

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(i)    No Legal Impediment to Issuance. No action shall have been taken and no statute, rule, regulation or order shall have been enacted, adopted or issued by any federal, state or foreign governmental or regulatory authority that would, as of the Applicable Time, prevent the issuance or sale of the Placement Shares; and no injunction or order of any federal, state or foreign court shall have been issued that would, as of the Applicable Time, prevent the issuance or sale of the Placement Shares.

(j)    Good Standing. Cowen shall have received at each Applicable Time, satisfactory evidence of the good standing of the Company and its subsidiaries in their respective jurisdictions of organization and their good standing as foreign entities in such other jurisdictions as Cowen may reasonably request, in each case in writing or any standard form of telecommunication from the appropriate governmental authorities of such jurisdictions.

(k)    Exchange Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Nasdaq Market, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Nasdaq Market at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

(l)    CFO Certificate. If requested by Cowen, Cowen shall have received a CFO Certificate, in form reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(s).

(m)    No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

(n)    Additional Documents. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(q), the Company shall have furnished (or caused to be furnished) to Cowen such further certificates and documents as Cowen may reasonably request.

All opinions, letters, certificates and evidence mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall be deemed to be in compliance with the provisions hereof only if they are in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to counsel for Cowen.

9.    Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)    Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen (a “Cowen Affiliate”) from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company in connection with this Agreement or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify

 

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the Placement Shares under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

(b)    Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company (a “Company Affiliate”) against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as and when incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c)    Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the failure so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the

 

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reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

(d)    Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions

 

23


hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10.    Effectiveness of Agreement. This Agreement shall become effective upon the execution and delivery hereof by the parties hereto.

11.    Termination.

(a)    Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(q), 7(r), or 7(s), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on the Nasdaq Market shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Payment of Expenses), Section 14 (Survival) and Section 17(b) (Governing Law) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11, Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 17(a) (Notices).

(b)    The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9, Section 12, Section 14 and Section 17(b) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)    Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9, Section 12, Section 14 and Section 17(b) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d)    Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 9, Section 12, Section 14 and Section 17(b) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

24


(e)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 9, Section 12, Section 14 and Section 17(b) shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(f)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

12.    Payment of Expenses.

(a)    Whether or not the transactions contemplated by this Agreement are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, the Company will pay or cause to be paid all costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including without limitation, (i) the costs incident to the authorization, issuance, sale, preparation and delivery of the Placement Shares; (ii) the costs incident to the preparation, printing and filing under the Securities Act of the Registration Statement, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus (including all exhibits, amendments and supplements thereto) and the distribution thereof; (iii) the costs of reproducing and distributing this Agreement; (iv) the fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel and independent accountants; (v) the reasonable documented fees and expenses incurred in connection with the registration or qualification of the Placement Shares under the state or foreign securities or blue sky laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen may designate and the preparation, printing and distribution of a Blue Sky Memorandum (provided that any fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in connection therewith shall by paid by Cowen); (vi) the cost of preparing stock certificates; (vii) the costs and charges of any transfer agent and any registrar; (viii) all expenses and application fees, if any, incurred in connection with any filing with, and clearance of the offering by, FINRA; (ix) all expenses incurred by the Company in connection with any “road show” presentation to potential investors related to the Placement Shares; (x) all expenses and application fees related to the listing of the Placement Shares on the Nasdaq Market; and (xi) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel; provided, however, that in no event shall the fee and expense reimbursement by the Company pursuant to the foregoing clauses (viii) and (xi) be more than $50,000 in the aggregate.

13.    Persons Entitled to Benefit of Agreement. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers and directors and any controlling persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. Nothing in this Agreement is intended or shall be construed to give any other person any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Agreement or any provision contained herein. No purchaser of Placement Shares from Cowen shall be deemed to be a successor merely by reason of such purchase.

14.    Survival. The respective indemnities, rights of contribution, representations, warranties and agreements of the Company and Cowen contained in this Agreement or made by or on behalf of the Company or Cowen pursuant to this Agreement or any certificate delivered pursuant hereto shall survive the delivery of and payment for the Placement Shares and shall remain in full force and effect, regardless of any termination of this Agreement or any investigation made by or on behalf of the Company or Cowen.

 

25


15.    Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

16.    Certain Defined Terms. For purposes of this Agreement, (a) except where otherwise expressly provided, the term “affiliate” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act; (b) the term “business day” means any day other than a day on which banks are permitted or required to be closed in New York City; (c) the term “subsidiary” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act; (d) the term “Applicable Time” means the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, the date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder; and (e) “Agent’s Information” means, solely the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence of the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

17.    Miscellaneous.

(a)    Notices. All notices and other communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been duly given if mailed or transmitted and confirmed by any standard form of telecommunication. Notices to Cowen shall be given to Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10022 (fax: (646) 562-1249), Attention: Head of Equity Capital Markets with a copy to the General Counsel (fax: (646) 562-1124). Notices to the Company shall be given to it at Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., One Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, (fax: (617) 812-8122); Attention: General Counsel.

(b)    Governing Law. This Agreement and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to this Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state.

(c)    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts (which may include counterparts delivered by facsimile or other electronic transmission), each of which shall be deemed an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.

(d)    Entire Agreement; Severability; Amendments or Waivers. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No amendment or waiver of any provision of this Agreement, nor any consent or approval to any departure therefrom, shall in any event be effective unless the same shall be in writing and signed by the parties hereto.

(e)    Headings. The headings herein are included for convenience of reference only and are not intended to be part of, or to affect the meaning or interpretation of, this Agreement.

[Signature page follows.]

 

26


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please indicate your acceptance of this Agreement by signing in the space provided below.

 

Very truly yours,
MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Jean Franchi

  Name:   Jean Franchi        
  Title:   CFO            

 

Accepted: December 15, 2017
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:  

/s/ E. James Streator, III

  Name:   E. James Streator, III
  Title:   Managing Director

 

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]


Schedule 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

  

[                     ]

Cc:

  

[                     ]

To:

  

[                     ]

Subject:   

Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated December 15, 2017 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [●] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a minimum market price of $[●] per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Placement Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


Schedule 2

Company

 

Name

  

Title

  

E-mail

Richard Peters

   President and Chief Executive Officer    rpeters@merrimack.com

Jean Franchi

   Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer    jfranchi@merrimack.com

Cowen

 

Name

  

Title

  

E-mail

Robert Sine    Director    robert.sine@cowen.com
William Follis    Director    william.follis@cowen.com


Schedule 3

Compensation

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Annex A-1

[Form of Opinion of Counsel for the Company]


Annex A-2

[Matters to be covered by subsequent Company Counsel Opinions]


Annex A-3

[OFFICER CERTIFICATE]

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected                     , of Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity (and not in the undersigned’s individual capacity) and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(q) of the Sales Agreement dated December 15, 2017 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i)    The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

(ii)    The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

                                                                       

  Name:
  Title:

Date:                     


Annex B

 

a. Issuer Free-Writing Prospectus

None

EX-4.1

Exhibit 4.1

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as amended

   Section of
Indenture

310(a)

   6.09

310(b)

   6.08
     6.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   6.13

311(b)

   6.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   4.01

4.04

312(b)

   4.04(c)

312(c)

   4.04(c)

313(a)

   4.03

313(b)

   4.03

313(c)

   4.03

313(d)

   4.03

314(a)

   4.02

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   2.04

8.04

9.01(c)

10.01(b)

11.05

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   11.05

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   6.01

6.02

315(b)

   5.11

315(c)

   6.01

315(d)

   6.01
     6.02

315(e)

   5.12

316(a)

   5.09

5.10

     7.04

316(b)

   5.06

5.10

316(c)

   7.02

317(a)

   5.04

317(b)

   3.04

318(a)

   11.07

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          PAGE  

ARTICLE 1     DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

  

Certain Terms Defined

     1  

ARTICLE 2     SECURITIES

     5  

Section 2.01

  

Forms Generally

     5  

Section 2.02

  

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     6  

Section 2.03

  

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

     6  

Section 2.04

  

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

     8  

Section 2.05

  

Execution of Securities

     10  

Section 2.06

  

Certificate of Authentication

     10  

Section 2.07

  

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

     10  

Section 2.08

  

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     11  

Section 2.09

  

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     13  

Section 2.10

  

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

     14  

Section 2.11

  

Temporary Securities

     14  

ARTICLE 3     COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

     15  

Section 3.01

  

Payment of Principal and Interest

     15  

Section 3.02

  

Offices for Payments, Etc

     15  

Section 3.03

  

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

     15  

Section 3.04

  

Paying Agents

     16  

Section 3.05

  

Written Statement to Trustee

     16  

ARTICLE 4     SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

     17  

Section 4.01

  

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     17  

Section 4.02

  

Reports by the Issuer

     17  

Section 4.03

  

Reports by the Trustee

     17  

Section 4.04

  

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

     17  

ARTICLE 5     REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     18  

Section 5.01

  

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

     18  

Section 5.02

  

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

     20  

Section 5.03

  

Application of Proceeds

     22  

Section 5.04

  

Suits for Enforcement

     22  

Section 5.05

  

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

     23  

Section 5.06

  

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

     23  

Section 5.07

  

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

     23  

 

i


Section 5.08

  

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

     24  

Section 5.09

  

Control by Holders of Securities

     24  

Section 5.10

  

Waiver of Past Defaults

     25  

Section 5.11

  

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

     25  

Section 5.12

  

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

     25  

ARTICLE 6     CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     26  

Section 6.01

  

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

     26  

Section 6.02

  

Certain Rights of the Trustee

     26  

Section 6.03

  

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

     27  

Section 6.04

  

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc

     28  

Section 6.05

  

Moneys Held by Trustee

     28  

Section 6.06

  

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

     28  

Section 6.07

  

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc

     28  

Section 6.08

  

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     29  

Section 6.09

  

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

     29  

Section 6.10

  

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee

     29  

Section 6.11

  

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee

     30  

Section 6.12

  

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee

     31  

Section 6.13

  

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer

     32  

ARTICLE 7     CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     32  

Section 7.01

  

Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders

     32  

Section 7.02

  

Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities

     32  

Section 7.03

  

Holders to Be Treated as Owners

     32  

Section 7.04

  

Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding

     32  

Section 7.05

  

Right of Revocation of Action Taken

     33  

ARTICLE 8     SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     33  

Section 8.01

  

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

     33  

Section 8.02

  

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

     35  

Section 8.03

  

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

     36  

Section 8.04

  

Documents to Be Given to Trustee

     36  

Section 8.05

  

Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures

     36  

ARTICLE 9     CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

     37  

Section 9.01

  

Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms

     37  

Section 9.02

  

Successor Issuer Substituted

     38  

ARTICLE 10     SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

     38  

Section 10.01

  

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance

     38  

 

ii


Section 10.02

  

Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities

     42  

Section 10.03

  

Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent

     42  

Section 10.04

  

Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years

     42  

Section 10.05

  

Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations

     42  

ARTICLE 11     MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     42  

Section 11.01

  

No Recourse

     42  

Section 11.02

  

Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities

     43  

Section 11.03

  

Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture

     43  

Section 11.04

  

Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities

     43  

Section 11.05

  

Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein

     44  

Section 11.06

  

Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays

     45  

Section 11.07

  

Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939

     45  

Section 11.08

  

New York Law to Govern

     45  

Section 11.09

  

Counterparts

     45  

Section 11.10

  

Effect of Headings

     45  

Section 11.11

  

Actions by Successor

     45  

Section 11.12

  

Severability

     45  

ARTICLE 12     REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

     45  

Section 12.01

  

Applicability of Article

     45  

Section 12.02

  

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

     46  

Section 12.03

  

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

     47  

Section 12.04

  

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

     48  

Section 12.05

  

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

     48  

 

iii


THIS INDENTURE, dated as of                      between Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and                     , a                      (the “Trustee”),

W I T N E S S E T H :

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01    Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933 (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.


Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at                     .

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

 

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Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

Global Security”, means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

Holder”, holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

Issuer” means Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

Officers Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

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Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

(a)    Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(b)    Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash or U.S. Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01 (a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and

(c)    Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

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Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

Subsidiary” means a corporation of which stock having a majority of the voting power under ordinary circumstances is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Issuer or by one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer.

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

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The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.02    Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

as Trustee

By:  

 

  Authorized Officer

Section 2.03    Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

(a)    the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

(b)    the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

(c)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

(d)    if other than Dollars, the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated;

 

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(e)    any date on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

(f)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined, and the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

(g)    the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

(h)    the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

(i)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(j)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(k)    if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

(l)    if other than the currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

(m)    if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

(n)    if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

(o)    if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

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(p)    whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay additional amounts on the Securities of any series in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

(q)    if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

(r)    any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

(s)    any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture;

(t)    if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange; and

(u)    any other terms of the series.

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

Section 2.04    Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

(a)    an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

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(b)    any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

(c)    an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

(d)    an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

(i)    the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

(ii)    the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture,

(iii)    such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer, and

(iv)    all laws and requirements in respect of the execution and delivery by the Issuer of the Securities have been complied with,

and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

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Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any other applicable statute or regulation.

Section 2.05    Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

Section 2.06    Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.07    Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

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The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

Section 2.08    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

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The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first mailing of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such

 

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Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

(i)    to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

(ii)    to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

Section 2.09    Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated, defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the

 

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case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.10    Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it; and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.11    Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same

 

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series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

Section 3.01    Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

Section 3.02    Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in                     , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

The Issuer will maintain in                     , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in                     , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

Section 3.03    Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

 

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Section 3.04    Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

(a)    that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

(b)    that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

(c)    that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

Section 3.05    Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written statement covering the previous fiscal year, signed by two of its officers (which need not comply with Section 11.05), stating that in the course of the performance of their duties as officers of the Issuer they would normally have knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant,

 

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agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, stating whether or not they have knowledge of any such default and, if so, specifying each such default of which the signers have knowledge and the nature thereof.

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 4.01    Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

(a)    semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

(b)    at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

Section 4.02    Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act insofar as it relates to information, documentations, and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Section 4.03    Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before                      in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 4.04    Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(b)    The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c)    Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 5.01    Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default. Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means each one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

(a)    default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

(b)    default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

(c)    default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(d)    a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

(e)    the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

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(f)    any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall become immediately due and payable.

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein—then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such

 

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portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

Section 5.02    Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise—then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

(i)    to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in

 

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the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

(ii)    unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

(iii)    to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

 

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In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

Section 5.03    Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest or Yield to Maturity, without preference or priority of principal over interest or Yield to Maturity, or of interest or Yield to Maturity over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest or Yield to Maturity; and

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 5.04    Suits for Enforcement. In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce

 

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the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Section 5.05    Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings. In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

Section 5.06    Limitations on Suits by Securityholders. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 5.07    Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, or for the enforcement of such conversion right, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner

 

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whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 5.08    Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default. Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

Section 5.09    Control by Holders of Securities. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

 

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Section 5.10    Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration. In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 5.11    Trustee to Give Notice of Default. The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 4.03, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the mailing or publication of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

Section 5.12    Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 6.01    Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default. With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (which has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

Section 6.02    Certain Rights of the Trustee. In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

(a)    in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

(b)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(c)    the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

(d)    none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

(e)    the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

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(f)    any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

(g)    the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

(h)    the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred therein or thereby;

(i)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(j)    prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

(k)    the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

Section 6.03    Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the

 

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Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

Section 6.04    Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc. The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

Section 6.05    Moneys Held by Trustee. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law. Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

Section 6.06    Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim. The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises. The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

Section 6.07    Right of Trustee to Rely on Officers Certificate, Etc. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee,

 

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be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

Section 6.08    Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 6.09    Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee. The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

Section 6.10    Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee. (a) The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by mailing notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

(b)    In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

(i)    the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

(ii)    the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

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(iii)    the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(c)    The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

(d)    Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

Section 6.11    Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee. Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations. Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers. Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

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If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall mail notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by mailing such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register. If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10. If the Issuer fails to mail such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

Section 6.12    Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

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Section 6.13    Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer. The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 7.01    Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee. Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

Section 7.02    Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities. Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof. The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent. Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

Section 7.03    Holders to Be Treated as Owners. The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

Section 7.04    Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding. In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any

 

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or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities which are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities. In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

Section 7.05    Right of Revocation of Action Taken. At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security. Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 8.01    Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

(a)    to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

(b)    to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

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(c)    to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

(d)    to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

(e)    to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus or prospectus supplement related to such series of Securities;

(f)    to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

(g)    to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

(h)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

(i)    to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of Securities, as herein set forth;

(j)    to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

(k)    to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein

 

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contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

Section 8.02    Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive an uncured default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of such series by the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series at the time Outstanding and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration) or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the payment or conversion thereof or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not be modified.

 

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Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by mailing a notice thereof by first-class mail to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

Section 8.03    Effect of Supplemental Indenture. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 8.04    Documents to Be Given to Trustee. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

Section 8.05    Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders. If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

 

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ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

Section 9.01    Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms. The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of and interest on all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes an obligation of the Issuer or any Subsidiary as a result of such transaction as having been incurred by the Issuer or such Subsidiary at the time of such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The conditions of (a)(ii) above shall not apply in the case of a corporation or entity not organized under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia which shall agree, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) to subject itself to the jurisdiction of the United States district court for the Southern District of New York and (ii) to indemnify and hold harmless the holders of all Securities against (A) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on such holders by a jurisdiction other than the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein with respect to, and withheld on the making of, any payment of principal or interest on such Securities and which would not have been so imposed and withheld had such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance not been made and (B) any tax, assessment or governmental charge imposed on or relating to, and any costs or expenses involved in, such consolidation, merger, sale or conveyance.

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

Nothing contained in this Article shall apply to, limit or impose any requirements upon the consolidation or merger of any Person into the Issuer where the Issuer is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Issuer, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Issuer).

 

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Section 9.02    Successor Issuer Substituted. Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

ARTICLE 10

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

Section 10.01    Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance. (a) If at any time

(i)    the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

(ii)    the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) or

(iii)    in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

(A)    all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

(B)    the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in cash (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in

 

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accordance with Section 10.04) or, in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash sufficient to pay on any subsequent interest payment date all interest due on such interest payment date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

and if, in any such case (i), (ii) or (iii), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series. The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

(b)    The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations discharged with all Outstanding Securities of a series (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such a series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of

 

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principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

(c)    The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03. In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

(d)    The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance under subsection (b) or Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c) to the Securities of the applicable series:

(i)    the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, cash or U.S. Government Obligations that will generate cash sufficient to pay principal of and interest on the Outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and to pay all other amounts payable by it hereunder, provided that (A) the trustee of the irrevocable trust, if any, shall have been irrevocably instructed to pay such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to the Trustee and (B) the Trustee shall have been irrevocably instructed to apply such funds or the proceeds of such U.S. Government Obligations to (x) the principal and interest on all Securities of such series on the date that such

 

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principal or interest is due and payable and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and the Securities of such series, and the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other amounts payable hereunder with respect to such series;

(ii)    the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

(iii)    no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

(iv)    in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

(v)    in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

(vi)    notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

 

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Section 10.02    Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Section 10.03    Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

Section 10.04    Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

Section 10.05    Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations. The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 11.01    No Recourse. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at

 

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common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

Section 11.02    Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

Section 11.03    Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 11.04    Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities. Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., One Kendall Square, Suite B7201, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Attn: Chief Financial Officer. Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at             ,         , Attn:                     .

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his or her last address as it appears in the Security register. In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

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Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

Section 11.05    Officers Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein. Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous. Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Issuer, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

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Any certificate or opinion of any independent firm of public accountants filed with and directed to the Trustee shall contain a statement that such firm is independent.

Section 11.06    Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. If the date of maturity of interest on or principal of the Securities of any series or the date fixed for redemption or repayment of any such Security, or the last day on which a Holder has the right to convert any Security, shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, or any conversion, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the date of maturity or the date fixed for redemption or on such last day for conversion, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such date.

Section 11.07    Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939. If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision included in this Indenture by operation of Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, such incorporated provision shall control.

Section 11.08    New York Law to Govern. This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract under the laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of such State without regard to any principle of conflict of laws that would require or permit the application of the laws of any other jurisdiction, except as may otherwise be required by mandatory provisions of law.

Section 11.09    Counterparts. This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original; but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

Section 11.10    Effect of Headings. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 11.11    Actions by Successor. Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board of directors or its equivalent, committee or officer of the Issuer shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Issuer.

Section 11.12    Severability. In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

Section 12.01    Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified, as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

 

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Section 12.02    Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Issuer shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption to such Holders of Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security register. Any notice which is given in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue and shall also specify, if applicable, the conversion price then in effect and the date on which the right to convert such Securities or the portions thereof to be redeemed will expire. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Issuer shall be given by the Issuer or, at the Issuer’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Issuer.

On or before the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Issuer will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more paying agents (or, if the Issuer is acting as its own paying agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 3.04) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption (other than those Securities theretofore surrendered for conversion into Common Stock in accordance with their terms) at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If any Security called for redemption is converted pursuant hereto and in accordance with the terms thereof, any money deposited with the Trustee or any paying agent or so segregated and held in trust for the redemption of such Security shall be paid to the Issuer upon the Issuer’s request, or, if then held by the Issuer, shall be discharged from such trust. The Issuer will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the date the notice required to be delivered to the Holders is to be sent (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate (which need not comply with Section 11.05) stating the aggregate principal amount of Securities to be redeemed. In case of a redemption at the election of the Issuer prior to the expiration of any restriction on

 

46


such redemption, the Issuer shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate stating that such restriction has been complied with.

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in multiples equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series or any multiple thereof. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Issuer in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities of any series shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed. If any Security selected for partial redemption is surrendered for conversion after such selection, the converted portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be possible) to be the portion selected for redemption.

Section 12.03    Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after said date (unless the Issuer shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to said date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be convertible into Common Stock (to the extent otherwise convertible in accordance with their terms), if applicable, and cease to be entitled to any benefit or security under this Indenture, and except as provided in the paragraph below, the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Issuer at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided, that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.03 and 2.07 hereof.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security and, if applicable, such Security shall remain convertible into Common Stock until the principal of such Security shall have been paid or duly provided for.

Upon presentation of any Security redeemed in part only, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Issuer, a new Security or Securities of such series, of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

47


Section 12.04    Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Issuer or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer.

Section 12.05    Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”.

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Issuer may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except upon redemption pursuant to the mandatory sinking fund) by the Issuer or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 and, if applicable, receive credit for Securities (not previously so credited) converted into Common Stock and so delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Issuer through any optional redemption provision contained in the terms of such series. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

On or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 11.05) (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the Securities of such series for which credit will be taken has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Issuer intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Issuer intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Issuer to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.10 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Issuer shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Issuer, on or before any such 60th day, to

 

48


deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Issuer that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof.

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency or a lesser sum in Dollars or in any Foreign Currency if the Issuer shall so request) with respect to the Securities of any particular series, such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) or less and the Issuer makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or the equivalent thereof in any Foreign Currency) is available, which delay in accordance with this paragraph shall not be a default or breach of the obligation to make such payment. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 12.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to which such cash may be applied, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Issuer) inform the Issuer of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Issuer (or the Issuer, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing), shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 12.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 12.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Issuer. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity. The Issuer’s obligation to make a mandatory or optional sinking fund payment shall automatically be reduced by an amount equal to the sinking fund redemption price allocable to any Securities or portions thereof called for redemption pursuant to the preceding paragraph on any sinking fund payment date and converted into Common Stock in accordance with the terms of such Securities; provided that, if the Trustee is not the conversion agent for the Securities, the Issuer or such conversion agent shall give the Trustee written notice on or prior to the date fixed for redemption of the principal amount of Securities or portions thereof so converted.

On or before each sinking fund payment date, the Issuer shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date.

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or give any notice of redemption of Securities for such series by operation

 

49


of the sinking fund during the continuance of a default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where the mailing of notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Issuer a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 5 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 5.10, or the default cured on or before the 60th day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on such sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.

[Signature pages follow]

 

50


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of                     .

 

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

                                                                       

  Name:
  Title:
Attest:
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
                    , Trustee
By:  

                                                          

  Name:
  Title:
EX-4.2

Exhibit 4.2

MERRIMACK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

and

 

 

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as amended

  

Section of

Indenture

310(a)    6.09
310(b)    6.08
   6.10
310(c)    Inapplicable
311(a)    6.13
311(b)    6.13
311(c)    Inapplicable
312(a)   

4.01

4.04

312(b)    4.04(c)
312(c)    4.04(c)
313(a)    4.03
313(b)    4.03
313(c)    4.03
313(d)    4.03
314(a)    4.02
314(b)    Inapplicable
314(c)   

2.04

8.04

9.01(c)

10.01(b)

11.05

314(d)    Inapplicable
314(e)    11.05
314(f)    Inapplicable
315(a)   

6.01

6.02

315(b)    5.11
315(c)    6.01
315(d)    6.01
   6.02
315(e)    5.12
316(a)   

5.09

5.10

   7.04
316(b)   

5.06

5.10

316(c)    7.02
317(a)    5.04
317(b)    3.04
318(a)    11.07

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Certain Terms Defined

     1  

ARTICLE 2

 

SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally

     6  

Section 2.02

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     6  

Section 2.03

 

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

     6  

Section 2.04

 

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

     9  

Section 2.05

 

Execution of Securities

     10  

Section 2.06

 

Certificate of Authentication

     11  

Section 2.07

 

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

     11  

Section 2.08

 

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     11  

Section 2.09

 

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     14  

Section 2.10

 

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

     14  

Section 2.11

 

Temporary Securities

     15  

ARTICLE 3

 

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

     15  

Section 3.01

 

Payment of Principal and Interest

     15  

Section 3.02

 

Offices for Payments, Etc

     15  

Section 3.03

 

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

     16  

Section 3.04

 

Paying Agents

     16  

Section 3.05

 

Written Statement to Trustee

     17  

ARTICLE 4

 

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

     17  

Section 4.01

 

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     17  

Section 4.02

 

Reports by the Issuer

     17  

Section 4.03

 

Reports by the Trustee

     18  

Section 4.04

 

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

     18  

ARTICLE 5

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     18  

Section 5.01

 

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

     18  

Section 5.02

 

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

     20  

Section 5.03

 

Application of Proceeds

     22  

Section 5.04

 

Suits for Enforcement

     23  

Section 5.05

 

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

     23  

Section 5.06

 

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

     23  

Section 5.07

 

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

     24  

Section 5.08

 

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

     24  

Section 5.09

 

Control by Holders of Securities

     24  

 

-i-


Section 5.10

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     25  

Section 5.11

 

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

     25  

Section 5.12

 

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

     25  

ARTICLE 6

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     26  

Section 6.01

 

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

     26  

Section 6.02

 

Certain Rights of the Trustee

     26  

Section 6.03

 

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

     28  

Section 6.04

 

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc

     28  

Section 6.05

 

Moneys Held by Trustee

     28  

Section 6.06

 

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

     28  

Section 6.07

 

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc

     29  

Section 6.08

 

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     29  

Section 6.09

 

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

     29  

Section 6.10

 

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee

     29  

Section 6.11

 

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee

     30  

Section 6.12

 

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee

     31  

Section 6.13

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer

     32  

ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     32  

Section 7.01

 

Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders

     32  

Section 7.02

 

Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities

     32  

Section 7.03

 

Holders to Be Treated as Owners

     32  

Section 7.04

 

Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding

     33  

Section 7.05

 

Right of Revocation of Action Taken

     33  

ARTICLE 8

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     33  

Section 8.01

 

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

     33  

Section 8.02

 

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

     35  

Section 8.03

 

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

     36  

Section 8.04

 

Documents to Be Given to Trustee

     36  

Section 8.05

 

Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures

     36  

ARTICLE 9

 

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

     37  

Section 9.01

 

Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms

     37  

Section 9.02

 

Successor Issuer Substituted

     38  

ARTICLE 10

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

     38  

Section 10.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance

     38  

Section 10.02

 

Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities

     42  

Section 10.03

 

Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent

     42  

Section 10.04

 

Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years

     42  

Section 10.05

 

Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations

     42  

 

-ii-


ARTICLE 11

 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     42  

Section 11.01

 

No Recourse

     42  

Section 11.02

 

Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities

     43  

Section 11.03

 

Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture

     43  

Section 11.04

 

Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities

     43  

Section 11.05

 

Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein

     44  

Section 11.06

 

Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays

     45  

Section 11.07

 

Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939

     45  

Section 11.08

 

New York Law to Govern

     45  

Section 11.09

 

Counterparts

     45  

Section 11.10

 

Effect of Headings

     45  

Section 11.11

 

Actions by Successor

     45  

Section 11.12

 

Severability

     45  

ARTICLE 12

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

     45  

Section 12.01

 

Applicability of Article

     45  

Section 12.02

 

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

     46  

Section 12.03

 

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

     47  

Section 12.04

 

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

     48  

Section 12.05

 

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

     48  

ARTICLE 13

 

SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

     50  

Section 13.01

 

Agreement of Subordination

     50  

Section 13.02

 

Payments to Securityholders

     50  

Section 13.03

 

Subrogation of Securities

     52  

Section 13.04

 

Authorization by Securityholders

     52  

Section 13.05

 

Notice to Trustee

     53  

Section 13.06

 

Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness

     53  

Section 13.07

 

No Impairment of Subordination

     54  

Section 13.08

 

Rights of Trustee

     54  

 

-iii-


THIS INDENTURE, dated as of                      between Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and                     , a                      (the “Trustee”),

W I T N E S S E T H:

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01    Certain Terms Defined. The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933 are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933 (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of this Indenture. All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision. The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.


Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at                     .

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person. For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

 

-2-


Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

Global Security”, means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

Holder,holder,holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

Issuer” means Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

Officers Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

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Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

(a)    Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(b)    Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash or U.S. Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and

(c)    Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02.

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

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Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

Senior Indebtedness” of a Person means the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding at the date hereof or hereafter incurred or created:

(a)    all of the indebtedness of that Person for money borrowed;

(b)    all of the indebtedness of that Person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that Person for money;

(c)    all of the lease obligations which are capitalized on the books of that Person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

(d)    all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in either of the preceding clauses (a) or (b) above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the preceding clause (c) above that the Person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the Person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

(e)    all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in any of the preceding clauses (a), (b) and (d) and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in either of the preceding clauses (c) or (d) above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument or lease creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the Securities.

Subsidiary” means a corporation of which stock having a majority of the voting power under ordinary circumstances is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Issuer or by one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more subsidiaries of the Issuer.

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee. “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or

 

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supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

Section 2.01    Forms Generally. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.02    Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

as Trustee
By:  

 

  Authorized Officer

Section 2.03     Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

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The Securities may be issued in one or more series. The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

(a)    the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

(b)    the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

(c)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

(d)    if other than Dollars, the Foreign Currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated;

(e)    any date on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

(f)    the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined, and the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

(g)    the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

(h)    the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Issuer, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

(i)    the obligation, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(j)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

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(k)    if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

(l)    if other than the currency in which the Securities of that series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

(m)    if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

(n)    if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

(o)    if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

(p)    whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay additional amounts on the Securities of any series in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

(q)    if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

(r)    any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

(s)    any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture;

(t)    if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

(u)    the extent to which payments on the Securities will be subordinated to the payment of Senior Indebtedness of the Issuer; and

(v)    any other terms of the series.

 

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The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities). Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

Section 2.04    Authentication and Delivery of Securities. The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order. The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures. If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

(a)    an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

(b)    any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

(c)    an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

(d)    an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

(i)    the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

(ii)    the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture,

(iii)    such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer, and

 

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(iv)    all laws and requirements in respect of the execution and delivery by the Issuer of the Securities have been complied with,

and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any other applicable statute or regulation.

Section 2.05    Execution of Securities. The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer. Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers. Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

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Section 2.06    Certificate of Authentication. Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose. The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.07    Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by mail by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, if such interest payment date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such interest payment date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

Section 2.08    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series. Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

 

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Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first mailing of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series. If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90 days

 

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after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities. In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

(i)    to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

(ii)    to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee. Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

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Section 2.09    Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated, defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.10    Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof. All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it;

 

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and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer. If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.11    Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee). Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof. Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate. Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities. Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

Section 3.01    Payment of Principal and Interest. The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture. The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

Section 3.02    Offices for Payments, Etc. The Issuer will maintain (i) in                     , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

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The Issuer will maintain in                     , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof. In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in                     , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section. The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

Section 3.03    Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee. The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

Section 3.04    Paying Agents. Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

(a)    that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

(b)    that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

(c)    that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

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If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due. The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

Section 3.05    Written Statement to Trustee. So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written statement covering the previous fiscal year, signed by two of its officers (which need not comply with Section 11.05), stating that in the course of the performance of their duties as officers of the Issuer they would normally have knowledge of any default by the Issuer in the performance or fulfillment of any covenant, agreement or condition contained in this Indenture, stating whether or not they have knowledge of any such default and, if so, specifying each such default of which the signers have knowledge and the nature thereof.

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 4.01    Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders. The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

(a)    semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

(b)    at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

Section 4.02    Reports by the Issuer. The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act insofar as it relates to information, documentations, and other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

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Section 4.03    Reports by the Trustee. Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before                      in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto. The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 4.04    Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders. (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(b)    The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c)    Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities. The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS

ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 5.01     Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default.Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means each one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

(a)    default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

(b)    default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

(c)    default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this

 

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Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(d)    a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

(e)    the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

(f)    any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall become immediately due and payable.

The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents,

 

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attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein—then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

Section 5.02    Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt. The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise—then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

 

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In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

(i)    to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

(ii)    unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

(iii)    to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

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Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

Section 5.03    Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon pres